English Neo-Gothic, architecture India, Muslim elements. This is perhaps the only example of eclectic architecture, which is really pleasing to art historians.
Palace in Alupka, because of the question, today is one of the most popular not only in the Crimea, but all over Ukraine.
Crimea was known to the Greeks since the time of Homer. Odysseus fellows had to be known and this place, since the town bears the Greek name (Alupka it after starogrecku November), the mountain rising above it is Ai-Petri (St. up. Peter), and even the names of most nearby towns, as Oreanda, Gaspra, Simeiz and Yalta, also have Greek origins. Ancient Greek is not necessarily fact, it can be Byzantine. About a thousand years ago, this city, as Ałubika, Kaganatowi Chazarskiemu subject, an incredible state of well-known religious tolerance. After the fall of the Khazars Alupka Genoese occupied. I arranged a small port there Ljupiko war. His task was to secure the Genoese Kaffa (Theodosia today), then one of the largest cities in Europe. In 1454 years Genoese possessions, including Kaffa Ljupiko and took the Tartars, the Turks in 1475 years unceremoniously took for himself the south-eastern shore of the Crimea, among others. of these cities. Feodosiya this benefited, become the seat of the largest in Europe and one of the world’s largest trade fair of slaves. The main providers of “live commodity” were Tatars, zapuszczający in the west almost to the Vistula. Alupka declined, the Black Sea has become a de facto internal sea in Turkey, so the ports of war were not needed. In 1774 Crimea was occupied by Russia and Alupka Grigorijowi Potiomkinowi accounted for Duke.
There would be a palace in Alupce, if not the Duke Mikhail S. Vorontsov. Not quite fit the vast majority of the Russian aristocracy. I certainly was not a German, although in fact it was the Germans ruled Russia in the nineteenth century. Very well educated, experienced in the world, and this is not so much conscious about its own purse, which entrusted to the country. French gave … bistro. Because after the fall of Napoleon in Paris bars entering the Russian soldiers occupying France, whose commander was just Vorontsov, as befits an all-powerful invaders, shouted from the doorway, they want to be served quickly, the Russian quickly. And that well-paid (Napoleon chased across Europe, so they had nowhere to fish in), then the restaurateurs hung signs that here is a fast, or bistro. And so it was.
When he became viceroy of the Caucasus and former governor of several provinces, contributes to their economic development. When you took over bernia Novorossiysk (southern Ukraine), Odessa was a small city of the. When the province gave the successor, was one of the largest cities of Russia. The most famous place in Odessa, the stairs, called potiomkinowskimi, leading to the port of Vorontsov’s palace zz. And he commanded them to build. He fought with Napoleon (among other things. At Pultusk and Friedland), then commanded the Russian occupation troops in France. Europe knew well, was the son of a Russian diplomat in England and the Republic of Venice. Today in Georgia it is difficult to find a Russian, spoken well. One of them is just Vorontsov.
Prince has his palaces but also Ałupki and Odessa in Tbilisi and St. Petersburg. Vorontsov also has links with the Polish. His wife Elizabeth was the daughter of Xavier Branicki, considered one of the greatest traitors in our history.
Vorontsov Palace in Alupka Photo Gallery
Alupka lies at the southern tip of Crimea, about 20 km in a straight line east from Cape Sarycz, the southernmost tip of the Crimea. It occupies a narrow width of several hundred at the foot of the coastal lowlands 1234-meter-high massif of Ai-Petri. The city counts approximately 8.8 thousand. residents. It is not extensive, only four square kilometers area.
The vertical wall of Ai-Petri protects the village from cold winds from the north. The climate is very mild so here. Average January temperature is 4 degrees. Plus, of course, that is, as in Venice. For this reason, since the end of the nineteenth century is a famous resort Alupka climate. Treated here, among others. Feodor Chaliapin singer, composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, Lesia Ukrainka writers, Maxim Gorky, Ivan Bunin, Valery Briusow, Mykhailo Kociubiński and others. In the area grow vineyards, known for fine wines that will only mention Pink Alupka, Madeira and the Black Doctor Massandra. Co-founder of the Crimean wine-making was Prince Vorontsov.
When the Prince Mikhail Vorontsov in 1823 became governor of New Russia, or south-eastern half of today’s Ukraine, classicism was already outmoded. A Vorontsov, as mentioned, was polished in the world. Fascinated with the British architecture, commissioned the design and construction supervision of his palace William Blore, skilful architect zafascynowanemu turn, Scottish castles, who designed, among others. palace for Walter Scott, and participated in the design of the building renovations commissioned by King George IV. Blore decided to go for broke. In a combined Romanesque and Gothic style, Plantagenets, Lancasters, Yorks and Tudors of Mughal architecture in India and Moorish style. Each part of the palace is in a different style. Blore chose them chronologically. “Oldest” is part of the West. Modeled on old English gears, Romanesque and Gothic walls at the western gate, give the impression of power and inaccessibility. Just this way leads to the palace’s main entrance. North facade of vertical buttresses and large windows, is modeled on the Tudor style. Coastal southern facade is in turn made in the style of the southern, Moorish and mogolskim. But something has to be in a style that does not mean that it will. For example, slender chimneys of the English Tudor strangely reminiscent of Arabian minarets. The most well-known architecture resembles the south gate of India. This is a live Bulanda Darwaza (Victory Gate) in Fatehpur Sikri, India’s capital city of Emperor Akbar the Great Mughal dynasty. But the patterns on the inside of the dome are quite English; this czteropłatkowe roses, flowers shaped like arms of Lancasters, Yorks and Tudors. And beneath them – a sixfold repeated Arabic inscription “There is no god but Allah.”
Vorontsov Palace in Alupka
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Local material, the people of imported
It is interesting that Blore never Alupka was not. Vorontsov personally hauled him to England, not only detailed maps and sketches of the landscape throughout the area and outline … the first foundations of the palace, designed by Francesco Boffo and Thomas Harrison, who, however, not to the liking of the prince. And the architect was enough even to properly orient palace of the sea and the massif of Ai-Petri. Not only that, many believe the sculpture repeats the shape of the palace of Ai-Petri mountain. Blore after Alupka became so highly regarded architect, was that Queen Victoria commissioned him at Buckingham Palace expansion.
The palace was built of diabase, igneous rocks transformed, consisting of the same minerals as basalt, but more coarse. Pyroxene is transformed over millions of years in chlorite, hence the greenish color characteristic of diabase.
As the work force they used peasants of Russia (Moscow and Vladimir provinces) estate Vorontsov. Musician knowledge or intelligence does not sin, so he served as a force unskilled. But the stone work already performed a high-class specialists, experienced masons from the quarries and manufactures Vorontsov.
Construction of the palace began in 1930. The central body was built in the years 1831-1837. The last element (1842-1846 onwards) was a library in the eastern part of the complex.
The palace is 150 ałupkińskim chambers. The most famous is the Blue Salon, the Chamber of calico and Chinese Cabinet. Floors, doors and ceilings are made of black oak. This is a very expensive material. Dab on a few dozen, and preferably for a hundred years is melted in water. At that time, tannins in the wood react with water contained in the compounds of iron, wood changing color to black. Fireplaces were built in flash of polished diabase. The furniture is of walnut, oak and mahogany. And of chandeliers, candelabra, vases, bronze, silver, crystal, porcelain, malachite … The walls are paintings of Dutch masters, Flemish, French and Italian.
Boudoir princess is in Chinese style, dining room (with balcony for musicians) in the Mauritanian. Library Home Library resembles the English lords, particularly Walter Scott, after all, was modeled on it. The Blue Salon to the dining room passes through the Winter Garden. It is entwined with lianas beautiful conservatory, planted with tropical plants, among which are white marble copies of antique sculptures.
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Park and forest
Since the palace was at the last fashion, others could not be the surrounding park. And at that time was a fashionable style landscaped park that is not copying nature as English, but her support. Everything was going to do an impression of authenticity. But this is no longer enough, even a few thousand musicians. Governor-General therefore urged the battalion of sappers. And those using gunpowder and the blades formed the terraces between the sea and the southern facade of the palace and shaped the area between the northern part of the palace and nieodległymi rocks. A whole head of German champion Karl Kiebach designing gardens.
Between the palace and the sea, arranged Lower Park, planted on terraces between which came down the alley zigzags up to the edge of the Black Sea. Prince descending towards the sea from the representative of South Gate, first passed by the Lion Terrace, which are Fountain of Tears – a copy of the object from the palace of the khans in the Fountain of Bakhchisarai and Shell. Then staircase decorated with three pairs of lions (sleeping, waking up and watching), carved by Italian Giovanni Bonanno of marble imported from Italian Carrara up, ran down to enjoy the terraces, the source of the Cat’s Eye, and the mighty sea, this time a natural rock.
Northeast of the palace was Upper Park. It consists of artificial boulder field and the Great Little Chaos Chaos, at first glance looks like a sizeable pile of natural rocks. Nothing of the sort, each piece of rock was brought here and laid their hands of the peasants under the guidance of designers. There is also a cascade of artificial lakes (trout, Mirror and Swan), combined with artificial waterfalls, glades (Trimble, Sunny, Contrast, Chestnut) and a fountain Trilbi, named in honor of the fallen prince favorite dog.
The park has about 40 hectares. It grows about 200 species, varieties and forms a more or less exotic trees and shrubs. These are, among others. Large magnolia, Chilean Araucaria, cork oak, pine, olive, cypress, palms, shrubs, etc. laurel.
The prince had no time to enjoy the magnificent palace. Even when the permanent structure (the complex was completed in 1851), in 1844 was sent to the Caucasus jako viceroy. Still based on the Russian government of Chechnya, Svaneti and Cherkessia has raised, but I really cared about the economic development of the whole region.